In 1787, the debts of the Revolutionary War piled up and many states lag behind in paying their debts. States would impose tariffs on each other and fight across borders. Britain was furious because no debt had been paid before the war, and it refused to respect the treaty that had ended the war (the Treaty of Paris of 1783). Acknowledging that things did not go well, Congress declared on February 21, 1787 that “there are flaws in the present confederation” and decided that in Philadelphia a convention “for the sole and explicit purpose of revising the articles of Confederation” . . . . and to make the Federal Constitution responsive to the needs of the government and to the maintenance of the Union. Three months after the Constitution was signed, Thomas Jefferson wrote to Madison saying it was a serious mistake to omit a bill. “A bill,” he said, “is what the people find against any government on earth.” And many others have agreed.
When the Constitution was ratified by the states, many people were opposed to the Constitution simply because it did not contain a bill. In Massachusetts and six other states, ratification conventions have recommended adding a bill with rights to the Constitution. And shortly after the first session of Congress in 1789, he responded to the request of the seven states and approved ten constitutional amendments (designed by James Madison) that became the Bill of Rights. One of the important issues faced by delegates was the fair representation of large and small states in the legislative (legislative) body, which then became a congress. One of the main compromises of the Constitutional Convention was between small and large states. Smaller states wanted each state to have the same number of representatives in Congress. The big states wanted representation based on population. The compromise was for a house of Congress (the House of Representatives) to have representation on the population (each state with at least one representative) and, for each state, two senators in another chamber (the Senate) regardless of population. On May 25, the meeting appeared at the Philadelphia Statehouse.
George Washington was elected presidential officer. Delegates quickly decided that their discussions should not be made public and that “nothing that is said in the house is printed or published or communicated in any other way.” Because of the rule of secrecy, the public didn`t know much about what was going on at the Philadelphia Statehouse. And without the careful notes of James Madison, who attended each session and carefully transcribed the procedure, we would now know little about how the Constitution was drafted. Delegates voted more than 60 times before the method was elected. The final agreement was to have the president elected by the voters of each state who would be elected “in a way that could be “direct” from his legislative power. Each voter would vote for two people (one of whom could not be a resident of the same state).) The person with the most votes would become president. But if no one had a majority of votes, the House would choose the candidate from the top five (the delegation of each state would vote). Almost all delegates were able to agree on the need for a president who serves as the central figure and executive of the new nation. There have been differences of opinion on the power and service of such a function. Some delegates who feared the advent of a king-style president voted in favour of a weak civil servant, who would be limited to a single one-year term.